7. Convertible preference shares are those which are converted into equity shares at a specified rate on the expiry of a stated period. Preference: a person or thing that is preferred over others. Other family members eligible to apply for a Green Card are described in the following family “preference immigrant” categories: First preference (F1) - unmarried sons and daughters (21 years of age and older) of U.S. citizens; Second preference (F2A) - spouses and children (unmarried and under 21 years of age) of lawful permanent residents; But son preference is apparent among those who want 3 children: Many more of them desire 2 boys, 1 girl (77%) than 2 girls, 1 boy (8%). The preference for male children transcends many societies and cultures, making it an issue of local and global dimensions. Even though both sexes were needed, sons were needed more. However, son preference continues to play an important role in fertility levels. n. 1. a. A long time before the 1979 one-child policy, sex ratio was already unbalanced between boys and girls, due to a high number of infanticides. In SouthAsia a son- -preference leads to abortion of girls in India() and additional children if the first born is a girl. Why is son preference declining in South Korea? Son Preference brings together key debates on the subject of son preference by assessing existing work in the field and providing new insights through primary research.The book covers a broad range of social science discussions and draws upon textual and ethnographic material from India. Define preference. preference synonyms, preference pronunciation, preference translation, English dictionary definition of preference. Son preference is one of the oldest issues in most of the societies with special reference to sons being getting preferential treatment over daughters in South Asia and developing countries. Second Preference: The second preference category is actually made up of two subcategories, each with different waiting periods. print version: While women's status in China is improving, in some households parents still prefer male offspring. The mixed findings on son preference and fertility in developed countries motivated us to revisit the question of son preference in the US in light of more recent data (Blau et al. Preference shares are typically less volatile than common shares and offer investors a steadier flow of dividends. 39 synonyms of preference from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 48 related words, definitions, and antonyms. forthcoming). Son preference is a gender discrimination that is based on a belief that to have sons is more socially, economically, religiously and politically advantageous than daughters (Oluduro, 2014). The selecting of someone or something over another or others: has a decided preference for travel by train. Preference share holders do not participate, in the extra earnings of the company, except in the case of participating preference shares. Son preference has persisted in the face of sweeping economic and social changes in the countries studied here. Son preference in India is a well-documented phenomenon. Preference shares are an optimal alternative for risk-averse equity investors. Son preference reflects the economic valuation of women, based on information on the number of “Missing Women” in a country. In light of the substantial increase in immigration, we examine this question separately for natives and immigrants. In contrast, some evidence for son preference in fertility persists among immigrants. Son preference has persisted in the face of sweeping economic and social changes in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. While son preference is not a new phenomenon and has existed historically in many parts of Asia, its contemporary expressions illustrate the gendered outcomes of social power relations as they interact and intersect with culture, economy and technologies. Son Preference and Maternal Survival in India Milazzo, Annamaria (2014-03) This paper is the first to show that excess mortality among adult women can be partly explained by strong preference for male children, the same cultural norm widely known to cause excess mortality before birth or at young ages. WikiMatrix. In some regions of the world where son preference is especially strong, sonless women are treated as outcasts. It is characteristic of gender inequality and has gained global attention and mobilization in order Pooled cross-section data include randomly sampled cross-sections of individuals at different points in time. Background. Someone who wants 3 children is more likely to reveal her favoritism toward sons because she is assigning desired sex to an odd number of children. Women usually didn\'t get proper regard in their husbands\' families until and unless they had a son in most of the societies. We investigate whether the son-preference has a cost for households as they may get Preference definition is - the act of preferring : the state of being preferred. "Even though son-preference is not rational from the viewpoint of society as a whole, it is a rational choice for an individual," says Li. In subcategory 2A are spouses or unmarried sons or daughters under age 21 of a permanent resident (green card holder). Preference in inheritance given to the eldest son. The role of development and public policy, and the implications for China and India Woojin Chung1 and Monica Das Gupta2 Acknowledgements: We are very grateful for comments from Minja Kim Choe, Martina Deuchler, Andy Foster, Michael Lokshin, Peter Miovic, and Shahid Yusuf. But what explains the fact that China, South Korea, and Northwest India manifest such extreme child sex ratios compared with other patrilineal societies? Find another word for preference. The ’Son Preference’ was thus a strategic and moral need for peasant and warrior Punjabi families for long-time survival. This paper focuses on the latter and uses data from Nepal where abortion of girls is still not a problem. Daughters due to their reproduction role had to be married off at puberty and were sent to their husbands’ village. Usage of preference Synonym Discussion of preference. According to a life-course perspective, adverse experiences during a childhood period may have a long-term effect on mental health in later age. A skewed sex ratio and shortage of girls is detrimental to the health and welfare of women, as well as to the human development of India. Son preference is often considered as a recent phenomenon whereas it is an old characteristic of the Chinese society. UN-2. Convertible preference shares. How to use preference in a sentence. Missing women, a concept suggest by economist Amartya Sen , measures gender bias in mortality due to sex selective abortions or insufficient health care to … Given a fertility of around 2, families with one or two children are unlikely to have ‘unwanted’ girls. Cookies help us deliver our services. A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. The term 'son preference' refers to the attitude that sons are more important and valuable than daughters. Its implications for skewed sex ratios, female feticide and higher child mortality rates for girls have drawn research and policy attention. In this paper, we use 2008-2013 American Community Survey data to update and further probe evidence on son preference in the United States. Preference of a Son - A tendency preserved mainly by women? Son preference is an enduring phenomenon in China and may often be related to childhood adverse experiences. The authors attribute this to their similar family systems, which generate strong disincentives to raise daughters while valuing adult women’s contributions to … Thus, by the 2008-2013 period, any apparent son preference in fertility decisions appears to have been outweighed by factors such as cost concerns in raising girls or increased female bargaining power. But what is less known are the underlying determinants of son preference and its implications for living girls. We attribute this persistence to their similar family systems, which generate strong disincentives to raise daughters – whether or not their marriages require dowries – while valuing adult women's contributions to the household. Son preference affects women in many countries, particularly in Asia. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. 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